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In conclusion, of all identified antimicrobial compounds, norwogonin was the most potent against multidrug- resistant A. baumannii strains.Wound surfaces (41%), sputa (24%), catheters (15%), and bloods (14%) were the four dominant isolation sources.We report the case of a 92-year old man with ventilator-associated pneumonia and pleurisy caused by Acinetobacter baumannii and Escherichia coli, which were both multidrug- resistant.These phenotypical methods proved to be useful in differentiating strains of A. baumannii and, if used together, they showed a high discriminatory power.Bacteria, such as the rapidly-emerging Multi Drug Resistant (MDR) pathogen Acinetobacter Baumannii, initiate the infection by adhering to biomaterials and forming a biofilm.However, the method is time-consuming because it requires restriction digestion of the PCR products in DNA cloning and the construction of new vectors containing a suitable antibiotic resistance cassette for the selection of A. baumannii merodiploids.The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from the patients in Surgical Intensive Care Units (SICUs) of Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad, Pakistan.Our aim was to compare the outcome of carbapenem- resistant A. baumannii VAP treated with colistin or with ampicillin-sulbactam.Automated systems are increasingly used for species identification and susceptibility testing.

Characterization of the outbreak strain was combined with a retrospective analysis of all CRAB isolates collected in the same hospital during the 5 years preceding the outbreak, with the aim of elucidating the origin of the epidemic spread.Acinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunistic and multidrug- resistant pathogen leading to nosocomial infections.The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of OXA type beta-lactamases in carbapenem- resistant A. baumannii strains and the clonal relationship between the strains.

Using PCR, OXA-51, a chromosomal marker for A. baumannii, was detected in 46 strains.The detected anti-A. baumannii activity of E. camaldulensis essential oils.Infection of A549 cells with ATCC 19606 or the pmrB mutant resulted in greater loss of viability than with lpx mutants.

Draft Genome Sequence of an International Clonal Lineage 1 Acinetobacter baumannii Strain from Argentina.Finally, it is shown that Zn limitation reverses carbapenem resistance in multidrug resistant A. baumannii underscoring the clinical relevance of these findings.Carbapenem- resistant strains are often resistant to all other routinely tested agents.Limited genetic diversity and extensive antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii in north-east Iran.Clinical epidemiology and resistance mechanisms of carbapenem- resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, French Guiana, 2008-2014.SETTING A 1,500-bed public teaching hospital in Miami, Florida.Premium fantasy baseball and football draft boards since 2004.Omp22 which has a molecule length of 217 amino acids kept more than 95% conservation in totally 851 reported A. baumannii strains.In summary, this work has shown complete structure characterization including the accurate assignment of acylation, phosphorylation, and glycosylation of lipid A from A. baumannii, which are important for resistance to colistin.

Antibiotic susceptibilities were examined, and the selected mutants originated from the ATCC 17978 strain were confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.Here, we describe the mechanisms of carbapenem resistance and we report the first colistin and carbapenemase-producing A. baumannii clinical isolate from a patient in Algeria.Due to chemical similarity, gallium competes with iron for binding to several redox enzymes, thereby interfering with a number of essential biological reactions.As the antibiotic choices to be used in treatment are limited, combinations of a variety of antibiotics are used.Given the crucial role of iron in A. baumannii nutrition and pathogenicity, iron metabolism has been considered as a possible target for chelation-based antibacterial chemotherapy.With better hand hygiene compliance of health-care workers (HCWs), the impact of these potential sources of contamination on clinical infection needs to be clarified.In this study we used two carbapenem- resistant clinical strains of A. baumannii (AbH12O-A2 and AbH12O-CU3) expressing the plasmid-borne bla(OXA-24) gene (plasmids pMMA2 and pMMCU3, respectively) to demonstrate that A. baumannii releases outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) during in vitro growth.The probable effective mechanisms and the protective potential of clonally distinct clinical isolates were investigated in vitro using an opsonophagocytic assay.

In our study, only three REP-PCR types were found, and the isolates showing type A or type B were found more than 60 times among unique patients during the 5 years of surveillance.Additionally, we found evidence of homologous recombination creating diversity within the local GC2 population, including several events resulting in replacement of the capsule locus.PCR assays showed the frequencies of genes related to biofilm formation: ompA (100%), bap (30%) and blaPER-1 (44%).One hundred and twenty-six epidemiologically sequential, unrelated, carbapenem- resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from nine hospitals in six countries of South America were collected between July 2013 and June 2014.Expression of the adeR response regulator gene of the AdeRS system, the activator of the AdeABC pump, was also analyzed.Results: The sequence of bap was determined and deposited in the GenBank database (accession no. KR080550.1). Expression of bap in the presence of low iron was analyzed by relative quantitative real time PCR (rqRT-PCR).Although OXA-72 presents a low prevalence compared with OXA-23, our study demonstrated that A. baumannii isolates carrying the blaOXA-72 gene were present in the hospital environment in Colombia and could act as a reservoir for further spread to other Acinetobacter species, like A. pittii, causing carbapenem- resistance.

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Other investigated genes such as blaOXA-24-like, blaOXA-58-like, blaVIM, blaIMP, blaSPM and blaNDM were negative.Blood and CSF cultures of the patient revealed no growth and his general condition has improved.This study aimed to investigate antibiotic resistance genes in the multidrug- resistant.Evaluation of Meropenem Regimens Suppressing Emergence of Resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii with Human Simulated Exposure in an In Vitro Intravenous-Infusion Hollow-Fiber Infection Model.Results were compared with a molecular assay resulting in sensitivity and specificity of culture compared to PCR of 91.7% and 89.6%, respectively.High drug exposure also proliferated polymyxin-dependent growth.Carbapenems are the most commonly used antibiotics for the treatment of infections caused by this pathogen.The study investigated the genetic relationship of carbapenem- resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolated from inpatients during 2008-2011 from 11 Brazilian states.These, together with a fourth IS26-flanked segment, formed a 19.5 kb genomic resistance island (GRI), designated AbGRI2-1, containing five copies of IS26.

Phosphoproteomics as an emerging weapon to develop new antibiotics against carbapenem resistant strain of Acinetobacter baumannii.We have previously identified Bap, a protein with similarity to those described for S. aureus and we have demonstrated that this protein is involved in maintaining the stability of biofilms on glass.Acinetobacter baumannii infections are difficult to treat owing to the emergence of various antibiotic resistant isolates.Carbapenemase activity was detected using microbiological tests and PCR.The most commonly used drug was amoxicillin with a clavulanic acid, often combined with fluoroquinolone.Patients were divided into group 1 (nine patients, IV colistin alone) and group 2 (nine patients, IV plus IVT colistin).Nosocomial infections caused by carbapenem- resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates have reached epidemic levels in past decades.

Multi- resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from patients has become one of the most hazardous pathogens in health care settings.The glycosyltransferase activity of PBP1A, which aids in the polymerization of the peptidoglycan cell wall, was lethal to LOS-deficient A. baumannii.This study determined the antibiotic resistance and molecular epidemiology of CNSAb isolates from a referral burn center in Tehran, Iran.

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Background: Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen.

Exploring novel antibiotics is necessary for multidrug- resistant pathogenic bacteria.

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The IC variants were predominant in the A. baumannii lineage with the ability to form strong biofilms.Eighty (40%) isolates had positive results for blaOXA-23-like, 14 (7%) for blaOXA-24-like and 1 (0.5%) isolate for blaOXA-58-like.The hospital-acquired pneumonia-related AB bacteremia group were found to be significantly more frequently treated in intensive care units (49.2%, p resistance (p resistant AB was significantly higher in patients with pneumonia (p resistant AB isolates.Expression profiles of the antimicrobial resistance genes in the imipenem-selected mutants and their parental strains were also determined.As doripenem, meropenem, or imipenem displayed similar pharmacodyanmics in combination, the decision of which carbapenem to use in combination with PMB may be based on toxicodynamic profiles if drastic discordance in MICs is not present.This is the first report of a successful use of intra-pleural colistin in the literature.

The Impact of Inadequate Terminal Disinfection on an Outbreak of Imipenem- Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in an Intensive Care Unit.A total of 124 A. baumannii isolates were collected from hospitalized patients in a teaching hospital in Kashan, Iran.The treatment was continued for 21 days and the patient recovered without any sequela.The dissemination of TNAB isolates in our hospital is attributable mainly to the spread of CC92.Multilocus sequence typing demonstrated that the 12 isolates belonged to 2 clones: 10 to ST2 and 2 to ST85.The results confirmed that refractory A. baumannii isolates were widely distributed and warned the hospital infection control team to exert strict measures to control the infection.Multidrug resistance is common among Acinetobacter baumannii, limiting the available options used to treat infections caused by this organism.Many of the PFGE groups contained isolates belonging to World-wide clone 2.